To produce wines of lower acidity, the primary fermentation is often followed by malolactic fermentation, where L-malic acid is converted into l-lactic acid. The microorganisms responsible for the malolactic fermentation are lactic acid bacteria (LAB) dominated by several species of Lactobacillus spp. (Lactobacillus casei, Lb. plantarum, Lb. sake, Lb. brevis, Lb. fructivorans, etc.), Pediococcus spp. (Pediococcus parvulus, Ped. pentosaceus, and Ped. damnosus) and Leuconostoc species. Because of
the detrimental effect on shelf life of pasteurization, sterile filtration is usually the preferred method for stabilizing the wine microbiologically before bottling.